This week, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) released data showing that the consumer price index (CPI) rose 0.5 percent in January compared to December 2022, reaching 6.4 percent over the prior 12 months. While inflation has trended down over the past six months, it will likely continue to be above the Federal Reserve’s target
A new tax expenditures report by the Joint Committee on Taxation (JCT) reveals two problematic developments: 1) policymakers have increasingly relied on the tax code to deliver benefits to individuals, and 2) the broad, neutral tax treatment of investment has shifted to targeted subsidies for businesses. Tax expenditures are often akin to “spending through the
New Internal Revenue Service (IRS) data on individual income taxes for tax year 2020 shows the federal income tax system continues to be progressive as high-income taxpayers pay the highest average income tax rates. Average tax rates for all income groups remained lower in 2020, three years after the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, than
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As Americans prepare to file their 2022 tax returns, the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) remains mired in a backlog of millions of returns from previous tax filing seasons. The National Taxpayer Advocate issued a warning to lawmakers in her annual report to Congress that the backlog creates “challenges for the 2023 tax filing season before
Earlier this week, the House of Representatives approved their rules package for the 118th Congress. One notable change to the rules will require the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) and Joint Committee on Taxation (JCT) to produce estimates of the “budgetary effects of changes in economic output, employment, capital stock, and other macroeconomic variables” resulting from
Newly published data from the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) indicates in 2019, before the onset of the pandemic, American incomes continued to rise as part of a broad economic expansion. It also shows that, contrary to common perceptions, the federal tax system is progressive. The data on household incomes and tax burdens also comes two years
Key Findings Cost recovery refers to how businesses deduct their investments over time. The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 reintroduced 100 percent bonus depreciation for short-lived investments, such as machinery and equipment, allowing full cost recovery for qualifying investments. Bonus depreciation will begin phasing down at the beginning of 2023. In 2018, the
The tax treatment of charitable giving over the past few years has been influenced by two major tax events: the 2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA) and the 2020 Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act. These changes provide a case study of how changes in tax policy can influence taxpayer behavior in
Underlying every fiscal policy discussion in Washington is the question of progressivity: how much should tax and spending policy redistribute from high-income households to low-income households? This debate is often more rhetorical than substantive, but a recent study by the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) fills this void by presenting data showing that the current fiscal
Research and development (R&D) is a crucial part of technological change, as R&D takes initial scientific discoveries and translates them into useful products that improve lives. Both the public and private sectors play important roles in R&D, but in recent years, private sector investment has become increasingly important. In 2019, businesses performed 75 percent of
The tax treatment of research and development (R&D) expenses is one of the biggest issues facing Congress as the year winds down. Since the beginning of 2022, companies have had to spread deductions for R&D costs out over five years, instead of deducting them immediately. This policy, known as R&D amortization, reduces economic growth by
As part of the 2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA), the United States enacted a new limitation on interest deductions for businesses. While it is common for countries across the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to set limits for interest deductions, starting this year, the U.S. became an outlier by using earnings
Two weeks after the 2022 midterm elections, it’s becoming clearer where tax policy may be headed for the rest of the year and into 2023. In the short term, Congress must deal with tax extenders and expiring business tax provisions that may undermine the economy. Next year, the return of divided government and an increasingly
At the end of each year, policymakers face a series of expiring tax provisions that are typically extended on a temporary basis, setting up a recurring and almost ritualistic tax extenders season. At a time of heightened concerns about the economy, high deficits, and inflation, policymakers should prioritize stability and economic growth by making permanent
As we near this year’s “lame duck” session of Congress, there has been renewed interest in child tax credit reform as part of a broader tax deal. One year after the expanded child tax credit originally enacted as part of the American Rescue Plan expired, policymakers are no closer to a consensus on where the child
Over the last six months, European perceptions of the Inflation Reduction Act have been a rollercoaster. European policymakers were hopeful that the Inflation Reduction Act would implement Janet Yellen’s Pillar Two commitment at the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). But hope turned to disappointment when the final text was fundamentally different from Pillar Two.
Supporters of the federal estate tax often defend it by saying that “because it only affects the heirs of the wealthiest Americans—fewer than one in 1,000 estates—the estate tax is the most progressive part of the tax code.” Despite the relatively small number of estates that pay the tax, there are real people behind these
Key Findings Carbon leakage occurs when a climate policy in one jurisdiction leads to emissions-producing activity simply shifting to a different jurisdiction. Leakage raises both environmental concerns—as it undermines emissions reduction efforts—and economic concerns. In the aggregate, leakage is relatively small, but it could have an outsized impact on specific emissions-intensive, trade-exposed (EITE) industries. Using
Key Findings Starting in 2022 and continuing through 2026, businesses will face several tax changes scheduled as part of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA), including a switch to five-year amortization of R&D expenses, the gradual phaseout of 100 percent bonus depreciation, a tighter interest deduction limitation, and an increase in international tax rates.
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